Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition
Users typically access social media services via web-based technologies on desktop, computers, and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices. When engaging with these services, users can create highly interactive platforms through which individuals, communities and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between businesses, organizations, communities and individuals. Social media changes the way individuals and large organizations communicate. These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies.
Social media differ from paper-based media or traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, reach, frequency, interactivity, usability, immediacy, and permanence. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system. This is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a paper newspaper which is delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites are Baidu Tieba, Facebook, Gab, Google+, MySpace, Instagram, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Tumblr, Twitter, Viber, VK, WeChat, Weibo, WhatsApp, Wikia, Snapchat and YouTube. These social media websites have more than 100,000,000 registered users.
Social media can help to improve individuals' sense of connectedness with real or online communities, and social media can be an effective communication tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, nonprofit organizations, including advocacy groups and political parties and governments. At the same time, concerns have been raised about possible links between heavy social media use and depression, and even the issues of cyberbullying, online harassment and "trolling".
Currently, about half of young adults have been cyberbullied and of those, 20 percent said that they have been cyberbullied regularly. Another survey was carried out among 7th grade students in America, which is known as the Precaution Process Adoption Model. According to this study, 69 percent of 7th grade students claim to have experienced cyberbullying and they also said that it is worse than face to face bullying. However both the bully and the victim are negatively affected, the intensity, duration and frequency are the three aspects that increase the negative effects on both of them.
The term social media is usually used to describe social networking sites such as:
Facebook – an online social networking site that allows users to create their personal profiles, share photos and videos, and communicate with other users
Twitter – an internet service that allows users to post "tweets" for their followers to see updates in real-time
LinkedIn – a networking website for the business community that allows users to create professional profiles, post resumes, and communicate with other professionals and job-seekers.
Pinterest – an online community that allows users to display photos of items found on the web by "pinning" them and sharing ideas with others.
Snapchat – an app for mobile devices that allows users to send and share photos of themselves doing their daily activities.
Instagram – an app for mobile devices that allows users to send and share videos and photos of themselves doing their daily activities.
WeChat – an app similar to Facebook for mobile devices that allows users to create their personal profiles, share photos and videos, and communicate with users. Primarily used in China.
Social media technologies take many different forms including blogs, business networks, enterprise social networks, forums, microblogs, photo sharing, products/services review, social bookmarking, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, and virtual worlds. The development of social media started off with simple platforms such as sixdegrees.com. Unlike instant messaging clients such as ICQ and AOL's AIM, or chat clients like IRC, iChat or Chat Television, sixdegrees.com was the first online business that was created for real people, using their real names. However, the first social networks were short-lived because their users lost interest.
The Social Network Revolution has led to the rise of the networking sites. Research shows that the audience spends 22 percent of their time on social networking sites, thus proving how popular social media platforms have become. This increase is because of the smart phones that are now in the daily lives of most humans.
Companies are increasingly using social media monitoring tools to monitor, track, and analyze online conversations on the Web about their brand or products or about related topics of interest. This can be useful in public relations management and advertising campaign tracking, allowing the companies to measure return on investment for their social media ad spending, competitor-auditing, and for public engagement. Tools range from free, basic applications to subscription-based, more in-depth tools.
Bots and social media marketing:
There are direct benefits of social media in the form of greater market share and increased audiences. To increase these benefits technologies that better facilitate social media marketing has been developed; an example of this technology is the development of bots.
Bots are automated programs that run over the internet. There are many forms of bots with varying behaviors. The bots most relevant to social media marketing are chatbots and social bots. Chatbots and social bots are programmed to mimic natural human interactions such as liking, commenting, following, and unfollowing on social media platforms. The ability of these bots to automate social media marketing needs has created a large demand and the establishment of a new industry of bot providers.
Most popular services:
This is a list of the leading social networks based on number of active user accounts.
Facebook: 2,047,000,000 users
YouTube: 1,500,000,000 users
WhatsApp: 1,200,000,000 users
Facebook Messenger: 1,200,000,000 users
WeChat: 938,000,000 users
QQ: 861,000,000 users
Instagram: 700,000,000 users
QZone: 638,000,000 users
Tumblr: 357,000,000 users
Twitter: 328,000,000 users
Sina Weibo: 313,000,000 users
Baidu Tieba: 300,000,000 users
Skype: 300,000,000 users
Viber: 260,000,000 users
Snapchat: 255,000,000 users
Line: 214,000,000 users
Pinterest 175,000,000 users
you can see from this that there is a huge craze of social media now a days. 95 out of 100 people have their accounts in social networking sites. it has many advantages and disadvantages.